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Sanskrit-English Glossary of the Yoga-Sûtra and Pronunciation Guide

Sanskrit’s breadth of expression comes in part from using the entire mouth for pronunciation, and from elongating accented vowels. With an alphabet of 49 letters, it has several different versions of familiar sounds such as ‘n’ and ‘s’, each issuing from a different part of the mouth. For this reason, diacritical marks are generally used to indicate how and where a consonant or vowel should be sounded.

Pronunciation Guide





ai, ay



â, î, û, ê, âi, âu

k, kh, g, gh, ò

c, ch, j, jh, õ

ø, øh, è, èh, ñ

t, th, d, dh, n

p, ph, b, bh, m







h alone


h after a consonant

pronounced like ‘a’ in america

pronounced like ‘i’ in liter

pronounced like ‘u’ in dude

pronounced like ‘e’ in grey

pronounced like ‘ai’ in aisle

pronounced like ‘o’ in over

pronounced like ‘ow’ in cow

prolonged for two beats instead of one

gutturals, arising from the throat

palatals, arising from the back of the palate

cerebrals, with tongue touching the roof of the mouth

dentals, with tongue touching the back of the teeth

labials, arising from the lips

palatal, always pronounced like ‘ch’ in chop

cerebral, pronounced like ‘ri’ in rip

palatal, pronounced like ‘sh’ in shout

cerebral, pronounced like ‘sh’ in leash

pronounced like ‘ni’ in onion

pronounced like ‘n’ in uncle

pronounced like ‘gn’ in igneous

pronounced like ‘h’ in hot

a soft echo of the preceding vowel

extra breath after the consonant (in Sanskrit there are no compound sounds like ‘th’ in thief or ‘ph’ in phone)

Sanskrit-English Glossary of the Yoga-Sûtra

Each of the Sanskrit terms in the Yoga-Sûtra appears below. To make this glossary more accessible to readers unfamiliar with Sanskrit, terms have been transliterated to the Roman alphabet, rather than appearing in devanâgarî script, and compiled in Roman alphabetical order. In many cases they have also been presented with the grammatical endings used by Patañjali, as well as their root forms, which are often a different part of speech and may have a somewhat different meaning. Parentheses indicate where each Sanskrit term can be found in the Yoga-Sûtra.


a = extending toâbhâsaä = luminosity (IV.19)

abhâva = non-existence, non-becoming, disappearance (I.10, 29; II.25; IV.11)

abhibhava = subjugation, suppression, submergence (III.9)

abhijâtasya = faultless, transparent (I.41)

abhimata = desired (I.39)

abhiniveåâï = self-preservation (II.3,9)

abhivyaktiï = manifestation (IV.8)

abhyantara = internal (II.50,51)

abhyâsa = practice, action, method (I.12,13,18,32)

âdaråa = seeing (III.38)

âdayaï = et cetera (II.34)

adhigamaï = attainment (I.29)

adhimâtrâ, adhimâtratvât = extreme, intense (I.22)

adhiæøâtëtvaä = supremacy (III.50)

adhva = path, route (IV.12)

adhyâsât = superimposition (III.17)

adhyâtma = innermost self (I.47)

adi = others (III.23,47)

âdiæu, âdîni = and the others, et cetera (III.25,41)

adëæøa = unseen (II.12)

âgamâï = testimony from a teacher or traditional texts (I.7)

agrya = pointed (II.41)

ahaäkâra = ‘I-maker’, source of egoism; the sense that identification is occurring ahimsâ = not harming (II.30,35)

âjõâna = ignorance (II.34)

ajõâtam = not known (IV.17)

akalpitâ = not feasible, impossible (III.45)

âkâra = shape (IV.22)

akarañam = without cause (III.51)

âkâåayoï = space, ether (III.42,43)

akliæøâï = benign (I.5)

akramam = not in sequence, simultaneous (III.56)

akëæñaä = not black (IV.7)

âkæepî = transcending (II.51)

akusîdasya = one without greed (IV.29)

alabdha = failing to attain (I.30)

âlambanâ = resting on (I.10,38)

âlambanaiï = support, object (IV.11)

âlasya = laziness (I.30)

aliòga, aliògâni = without form (I.45; II.19)

âlokaï = illumination, flashes of brilliance (III.5,26)

alpam = little (IV.31)

anabhighâtaï = insulation, being beyond disturbance (II.48; III.46)

anâditvaä = without beginning (IV.10)

anâgatam = future (II.16; III.16; IV.12)

ânanda = bliss, joy (I.17)

ananta = endless, boundless (II.34,47)

ânantaryaä = succession (IV.9)

ânantyât = infinity, the boundless (IV.31)

anâåayam = not involving the store of latent impressions (IV.6)

anaæøaä = not ceased (II.22)

anâtmasu = not self (II.5)

anavacchedât = unbounded, continuous (I.26; III.54)

anavacchinnâï = unlimited, irrespective of (II.31)

anavadhârañam = not perceiving (IV.20)

anavasthitatvâni = inconstancy, instability (I.30)

anekeæâä = many (IV.5)

aògam, aògâni = limb, component (I.31; III.7,8)

añima = the power to become minutely small (III.47)

aniæøa = undesirable (III.52)

anitya = impermanent (II.5)

aõjanatâ = saturation, taking the form of something else (I.41)

anta = end (IV.33)

antaï = extending from...to (I.40)

antar = inner (III.7)

antara = other (IV.2,21)

antarâya = obstacle (I.29,30)

antardhânam = invisibility, disappearance (III.21)

añu = minute, infinitesimal (I.40)

anubhûta = experienced (I.11)

anugamât = going with, following, accompanying (I.17)

anuguñânâm = going with, following, accompanying (IV.8)

anukâra = imitation, following suit (II.54)

anumâna = inference (I.7,49)

anumoditâ = approved (II.37)

anupaåyaï = to behold (II.20)

anupâtî = following, relying upon (I.9; III.14)

ânuåâsanam = teaching, exposition (I.1)

anuåayî = following (II.7,8)

anuåravika = heard, learned (I.15)

anuæøhânât = performance, practice (II.28)

anuttamaï = unsurpassed (II.42)

anvaya = pervasiveness, relation (III.45,48)

anvayaï = connected to, permeated (III.9)

anyaï = other (I.18,49,50; II.22)

anyatâ = distinction (III.50,54)

anyatvam = differentiation, variation (III.15)

apara = other (IV.33)

aparâmëæøaï = untouched, unaffected (I.24)

aparânta = death (III.23; IV.33)

aparigrahâ = not being acquisitive (II.30,39)

apariñâmitvât = immutability (IV.18)

âpattau = assumes, occurs (IV.22)

apavarga = emancipation, liberation (II.18)

apekæitvât = necessity (IV.17)

apetasya = removed (IV.31)

api = also (I.22,26,29,51; II.9,20,22; III.8,51; IV.9,24,29)

apramâñakaä = unobserved (IV.16)

apratisaòkramâyâï = immobile, unchanging (IV.22)

aprayojakam = not causing (IV.3)

apuñya = bad, evil (I.33; II.14)

âpûrât = overflow (IV.2)

ariæøebhyaï = signs, omens (III.23)

artha = meaning, purpose, approach, object (I.28,32,42,43; II.2,18,21,22; III.3,36; IV.23,24)

arthata = regarding the meaning of something (III.11)

arthatvât = function, role (I.49; III.36)

asaòkîrnayoï = unmixed (III.36)

asampramoæaï = not allowing to steal away (I.11)

asamprayoge = uncoupling (II.54)

asansargaï = freedom from contact (II.40)

âsana = posture (II.29,46)

asaòga = without touching (III.40)

asaòkhyeya = countless (IV.24)

âsannaï = near (I.21)

âåayaï = store, residuum (I.24; II.12)

âsevitaï = cultivated (I.14)

âåiæaï = primordial will to exist (IV.10)

asmitâ = the sense of ‘I’, egoism (I.17; II.3,6; IV.4)

âåraya = basis, foundation (IV.11)

âårayatvam = rest on (II.36)

asteya = not stealing (II.30,37)

aæøâu = eight (II.29)

asti = exist (IV.12)

aåuci = impure (II.5)

aåuddhi = impurity (II.43)

aåukla = not white (IV.7)

âsvâda = tasting (III.37)

asya = his (I.40)

atad = not that (I.8)

atha = now (I.1)

atiprasaògaï = regress (IV.21)

atîta = past (III.16; IV.12)

âtma, âtmakaä, âtmânaï = self, essence (II.5,21,41; IV.25)

âtmatâ = selfhood (II.6; IV.13)

atyanta = absolutely (III.36)

auæadhi = herb (IV.1)

âvarañam = covering, veil, layer (II.52; III.44; IV.31)

avasthâ = condition (III.13)

avasthânam = state of abiding (I.3)

âveåaï = entering (III.39)

avidyâ = lack of wisdom, ignorance of one’s true nature (II.3,4,5,24)

aviplavâ = continuous, uninterrupted (II.26)

avirati = hedonism (I.30)

aviæayî = not present, absent (III.20)

aviåeæa = indistinct (II.19; III.36)

avyapadeåya = unmanifest (III.14)

âyuï = span of life (II.13)

bâdhane = repelling (II.33)

bahiï = external (III.8,44)

bâhya = external (II.50,51)

bala = powers, strengths (III.26,48)

balâni = powers, strengths (III.25)

bandhaï = binding (III.1,39)

bharâ = bearing (I.48)

bhâraä = load (IV.26)

bhaumâ = at a level (II.31)

bhava = being, becoming (I.19)

bhavah = condition, state (III.49,50; IV.25)

bhâvanâ = realizing, becoming (II.2; IV.25)

bhâvanam = realizing, becoming (I.28; II.33,34)

bhâvanâtaï = radiating, projecting (I.33)

bhedaï = division, difference (IV.3,5,12,15)

bhogâï = experience, enjoyment (II.13,18; III.36)

bhrânti = false (I.30)

bhûmiï = rooted, grounded (I.14; III.6); stage (II.27)

bhûmiï = stage, level (II.27)

bhûmikatva = developmental stages (I.30)

bhûta = element, being (II.18; III.13,17,45)

bhûtatvât = actuality, being (III.20)

bhuvana = world (III.27)

bîjam = seed, source (I.25; III.51)

brahmacarya = celibacy, impeccable conduct (II.30,38)

buddhi, buddheï = perception, intelligence (IV.21,22)

ca = and, but (I.29,44,45; II.2,15,41,53; III.20,23,39,40,43,46,49,50,55; IV.10,16,20,21)

cakre = wheel, energy center (III.30)

cakæuï = eye (III.21)

candre = moon (III.28)

caturthaï = fourth (II.51)

cetanâ = consciousness (I.29)

chidreæu = gap (IV.27)

citeï = pure awareness (IV.22,34)

citram = variegated, spotted (IV.24)

citta = consciousness (I.2,30,33,37; II.54; III.1,9,11,12,19,35,39; IV.4,5,15,16,17,18,21,23,26)

daråana = vision, perspective, systematic view, philosophy (I.30; II.6,41; III.33)

daråina = one who sees (IV.25)

daurmanasya = depression (I.31)

deåa = place (II.31,50; III.1,54; IV.9)

devatâ = deity (II.44)

dhârañâ = concentration (II.29,53; III.1)

dharma = property, visible form, constituent substance (III.13,14,46; IV.12,29)

dharmî = substrate, substance (III.14)

dhruve = polestar (III.29)

dhyânât = meditative absorption (I.39; II.11,29; III.2; IV.6)

dîptiï = radiance (II.28)

dîrgha = long (I.14; II.50)

divyaä = divine (III.42)

doæa = imperfection, flaw (III.51)

draæøë = seer, witness, pure awareness (II.17,20; IV.23)

draæøâ, draæøuï = seer, witness, pure awareness (I.3; II.20)

dëèha = firmly (I.14)

dëg = witness, see-er (II.6)

dëåi = seeing (II.20,25)

dëæøa = seen, perceptible (I.15; II.12)

dëåya, dëåyayoï, dëåye = what is seen (II.17,18,21; IV.21,23)

dëåyatvât = seen-ness (IV.19)

duïkha = distress, pain, suffering (I.31,33; II.5,8,15,16,34)

dvandva = play of opposites, dualities (II.48)

dveæa = aversion (II.3,8)

ejayatva = trembling (I.31)

eka = one (I.32; II.6,41; IV.5,9,16,20)

ekâgratayoï, ekâgrya = one-pointedness, focus (II.41; III.11,12)

ekatra = in one, as one (III.4)

ekatvât = oneness (IV.14)

eæâm = of these (IV.11,28)

etaya = by this (I.44)

ete = these (II.31)

etena = by this (III.13)

eva = thus (I.44,46; II.15,21; III.3; IV.8)

gamanam = travel (III.43)

gati = flow (II.49; III.29)

grahaña = grasping, perceiving (I.41; III.48)

grahîtë = one who grasps, perceiver (I.41)

grâhya = to be received, perceived (III.21)

grâhyeæu = grasped, object of perception (I.41)

guña = fundamental quality of nature (I.16; II.15,19; IV.13,32,34)

guruï = teacher, mentor (I.26)

hânaä = cessation (II.25,26; IV.28)

hasti = elephant (III.26)

hetuï = cause, reason (II.17,23,24; III.15; IV.11)

hetutvât = causality (II.14)

heyâï = overcome, overwhelmed (II.10,11,16,17)

himsâ = harming (II.34)

hlâda = delight (II.14)

hëdaye = heart (III.35)

indriya = sensory apparatus (II.18,41,43,54,55; III.13,48)

iæøa = desired (II.44)

îåvara = divine ideal of pure awareness (I.23,24; II.1,32,45)

itaratra = otherwise (I.4)

itareæâm = others (I.20; IV.7)

itaretara = one another (III.17)

iti = thus, that’s all (II.34; III.55,56; IV.34)

iva = like, thus, as it were (I.41,43; II.6,54; III.3)

jaï = born of (I.50; III.53,55; IV.1)

jala = water (III.40)

jam = born (III.54,56; IV.6)

janma = birth (II.12,39; IV.1)

japaï = repetition, intonation (I.28)

jâti = birth, rank (II.13,31; III.18,54; IV.2,9)

javitvam = quickness (III.49)

jaya = mastery (II.41; III.5,40,41,45,48,49)

jâyante = occur, are produced (III.37)

jõatva = knowing (I.25)

jõâna = knowledge, insight (I.8,9,38,42; II.28; III.16,17,18,19,23,26,27,28,29,36,53,55; IV.31)

jõâta = known (IV.17,18)

jõâtëtvaä = omniscience (III.50)

jõeyam= to be known (IV.31)

jugupsâ = disinclination, detachment (II.40)

jvalanam = radiance (III.41)

jyotiæi = light (III.33)

jyotiæmatî = luminous (I.36)

kaivalyam = emancipation, isolation of pure awareness (II.25; III.51,56; IV.26,34)

kâla = time (I.14; II.31,50; IV.9)

kâlena = by time, temporally (I.26)

kañøaka = thorn (III.40)

kañøha = throat (III.31)

karañât = making, observing (III.18)

karaña = cause, making, perception (II.2; III.39,40)

kârita = caused to be done, instigated (II.34)

kâritvât = activity (IV.24)

karma = action (I.24; II.12; III.23; IV.7,30)

karuñâ = compassion (I.33)

kathantâ = understanding why (II.39)

kâya = body (II.43; III.21,30,43,46,47)

khyâteï, khyâtiï = seeing (I.16; II.5,26,28 ; III.51; IV.29)

kiä = what (IV.16)

kleåa = cause of suffering, corruption, hindrance, affliction, poison (I.24; II.2,3,12,13; IV.30)

kleåavat = like the causes of suffering (IV.28)

kliæøa = hurtful (I.5)

krama = sequence, flow, succession (III.15,53; IV.32,33)

kriyâ = action (II.1,36; II.18)

krodha = anger (II.34)

këta = done, accomplished (II.22; IV.32)

kæaña = moment (II.9,52; IV.33)

kæayaï = disappearance (II.43; III.11,45 kæaye, kæayât = dwindling, decreasing (II.28, 43; III.52)

kæetram = field (II.4)

kæetrikavat = like a farmer (IV.3)

kæîña = dwindled, decreased (I.41)

kæîyate = disappears (II.52)

kæut = hunger (III.31)

kûpe = pit, well, cavity (III.31)

kûrma = tortoise (III.32)

lâbhaï = acquired (II.38,42)

laghu = light (III.43)

lakæaña = characteristic, time factors (III.13,54)

lâvañya = grace (III.46)

layânâm = clasped, merged (I.19)

liòga = mark, characteristic (II.19)

lobha = greed (II.34)

madhya = moderate (I.22; II.34)

mahâ = great (II.31; III.45)

mahattva = greatness, magnitude (I.40)

maitrî = friendliness (I.33; III.24)

mala = imperfection (IV.31)

manaï, manasaï = mind (I.35; II.53)

mañeï = jewel (I.41)

mantra = intonation (IV.1)

mâtra = only (I.43; II.20; III.3,50; IV.4)

meghaï = cloud, rain showers (IV.29)

mithyâ = false (I.8)

moha = delusion (II.34)

mëdu = mild (I.22; II.34)

mudita = delight (I.33)

mûlaï = root (II.12,13)

mûrdha = head, crown (III.33)

na = not (III.20; IV.16,19)

nâbhi = navel (III.30)

nâèyâä = channel, duct (III.32)

nairantarya = continuously, uninterruptedly (I.14)

naæøam = ceased (II.22)

nibandhanî = holds (I.35)

nidrâ = sleep (I.6,10,38)

nimittam = proximate cause (IV.3)

nimnaä = bent, inclined toward (IV.26)

niratiåayaä = incomparable, unsurpassed (I.25)

nirbhâsâ = shining (I.43; III.3)

nirbîjaï = seedless (I.51; III.8)

nirgrâhyaï = graspable (IV.33)

nirmâña = forming, creating (IV.4)

nirodhaï = stilling, cessation, restriction (I.2,12,51; III.9)

nirupakramaä = slow to manifest (III.23)

nirvicârâ = not reflecting (I.44,47)

nirvitarkâ = beyond thought (I.43)

nitya = permanent (II.5)

nityatvât = perpetuity, eternity (IV.10)

nivëttiï = cessation (III.31; IV.30)

niyama = internal discipline (II.29,32)

nyâsât = setting down, focusing (III.26)

paõcatayyaï = fivefold (I.5)

paòka = mud (III.40)

panthâï = path (IV.15)

para, paraiï = other (II.40; III.19,37,40; IV.24)

paramâ = ultimate, highest, purest (I.40; II.55)

paridëæøaï = observed, measured, scrutinized (II.50)

pariñâma = transformation (II.15; III.9,11,12,13,15,16; IV.2,14,32,33)

pariåuddhau = wiping clean, purification (I.43)

paritâpa = anguish (II.14)

parvâñi = level, state (II.19)

paryavasânam = ending, terminating (I.45)

phalâï = fruit (II.14,34,36; IV.11)

pipâsâ = thirst (III.31)

prabhoï = superior (IV.18)

pracâra = movement, passage (III.39)

pracchardana = exhalation, expulsion (I.34)

pradhâna = foundation, matrix (III.49)

prâdur = outside (III.9,47)

prâg = before (IV.26)

prajõâ = wisdom (I.20,48,49; II.27; III.5)

prakâåa = brightness (II.18,52; III.21,44)

prakëti = nature, phenomenal world (I.19; IV.2,3)

pramâda = carelessness (I.30)

pramâña = right perception (I.6,7)

prâñasya = breath, life force (I.34)

prañavaï = the syllable pronounced om (I.27)

prâñâyâma = breath regulation (II.29,49)

prañidhânât = surrender, dedication (I.23; II.1,32,45)

prânta = last (II.27)

prasâdaï, prasâdanam = calming, tranquilizing, clarification (I.33,47)

prasaòkhyâne = elevation, summit (IV.29)

prasaògât = inclination, recurrence (III.52)

praåânta = tranquil (III.10)

prasava = flow, motion, creation, inception (II.10; IV.34)

prasupta = dormant (II.4)

praåvâsâ = exhalation (I.31; II.49)

prati = with regard to, toward, reversing (II.22)

pratibandhî = prevents, obstructs (I.50)

prâtibhât = spontaneous illumination (III.34,37)

pratipakæa = opposite (II.33,34)

pratipattiï = understanding (III.54)

pratiæedha = subdue, ward off (I.32)

pratiæøhâ = foundation (IV.34)

pratiæøham, pratiæøhâyâà = based on, grounded in (I.8; II.35; IV.34)

pratiyogî = corresponding (IV.33)

pratyâhâra = withdrawal of the senses (II.29,54)

pratyak = inward (I.29)

pratyakæa = percept, sensory input (I.7)

pratyaya = perception, thought, intention, representation (I.10,18,19; II.20; III.2,12,17,19,36; IV.27)

pravibhâga = distinction (III.17)

pravëttiï = arising of activity (I.35; III.26; IV.5)

prayatna = effort (II.47)

prayojakaä = causing (IV.5)

punaï = again (III.12,52)

puñya = good, virtuous (I.33; II.14)

puruæa = pure awareness (I.16,24; III.36,50,56; IV.18,34)

pûrvaï, pûrvebhyaï = earlier (I.18,26; III.7,18)

pûrvaka = preceded by (I.20; II.34)

râga = wanting, desire, passion, attachment (I.37; II.3,7)

rasa = taste (II.9)

ratna = jewel (II.37)

ëtam = truth (I.48)

rûèhaï = rooted (II.9)

r¯upa = form (I.8,17; II.23,54; III.3,21,47; IV.34)

rûpataï = in form (IV.12)

rûpatvât = essential form (IV.9)

ruta = language, sound (III.17)

sa = this, that (I.14,26)

åabda = verbal, linguistic (I.9,42; III.17)

sabîjaï = with seed (I.46)

sadâ = always (IV.18)

sadhana = path to realization (II.heading)

sâdhârañatvât = common experience (II.22)

sahabhuvaï = accompanying (I.31)

åaithilya = relaxation (II.47; III.40)

sâkæât = direct, through the eye (III.18)

åakteï, åaktyoï = power (II.6,23; IV.21,34)

sâlambanaä = with support (III.20)

samâdhi = oneness, integration (I.20,46,51; II.2,29,45; III.3,11,38; IV.1,29)

samâna = energy flow through the solar plexus (III.41)

samâpattiï = coalescence, unified contemplation (I.41,42; II.47; III.43)

samâptiï = termination (IV.32)

samaya = circumstance (II.31; IV.20)

sambandha = relationship (III.42,43)

sambodhaï = insight (II.39)

saähananatvâni = durability, firmness (III.47)

saähatya = compound (IV.24)

saäjõâ = comprehension (I.15)

sâàkhya = one of the six perspectives, or daråanas, of Indian thoughtsampat = perfection (III.46,47)

samprajõâtaï = cognitive (I.17)

samprayogaï = contact (II.44)

saäsk¯ara = latent impressions (I.18,50; II.15; III.9,10,18; IV.9,27)

saävedanât = sensitivity (III.39; IV.22)

samvegânâm = intense, vehement (I.21)

samvit = understanding (III.35)

saäyamaï = constraint, perfect discipline (III.4,16,17,21,22,27,36,42,43,45,48,53)

sâmye = equality (III.56; IV.15)

saäyogaï = coupling, union, association, mingling (II.17,23,25)

saòga = contact, attachment (III.52)

saògëhîtatvât = connectedness (IV.11)

saòkaraï = confusion, mixing up (III.17; IV.21)

saòkhyâbhiï = number (II.50)

saòkîrñâ = intermingled (I.42)

sannidhau = presence (II.35)

sanåaya = doubt (I.30)

åânta = quiescent, subsided (III.12,14)

santoæa = contentment (II.32,42)

saptadhâ = sevenfold (II.27)

åarîra = body (III.39)

sârûpyam = identification, conformity (I.4)

sarva = all (I.25,51; II.15,31,37; III.11,17,34,50,55; IV.23)

sarvathâ = in all circumstances (III.55; IV.29)

sati = existing (II.13,49)

satkâra = skillfully, in the right way (I.14)

sattva = clarity, luminosity; a fundamental essence of nature, or guna (II.41; III.36,50,56)

satya = truthfulness, truth (II.30,36)

åauca = purity (II.32,40)

saumanasya = gladness (II.41)

savicârâ = reflecting (I.44)

savitarkâ = thought (I.42)

åeæaï = store, residuum (I.18)

siddha = perfected one (III.33)

siddhiï = perfection, attainment (II.43,45; III.38; IV.1)

åîlaä = character (II.18)

smayâ = pride, beaming (III.52)

smëti, smëtayaï = memory, remembering; depth memory; mindfulness (I.6,11,20,43; IV.9,21)

sopakramaä = immediately manifest (III.22)

åraddhâ = faith (I.20)

årâvaña = hearing (III.37)

årotra = of hearing (III.42)

årotram = faculty of hearing (III.42)

åruta = what has been heard, teachings (I.49)

stambha = stationary (II.50)

stambhe = suspension (III.21)

stha = abide (I.41)

sthairye = being settled in (II.39; III.32)

sthâni = exalted, celestial (III.52)

sthira = steady, stable (II.46)

sthiti, sthitau = stability, steadiness (I.13,35; II.18)

sthûla = gross (III.45)

styâna = apathy (I.30)

åuci = pure (II.5)

åuddhaï = pure (II.20)

åuddhi = purity (II.41; III.56)

sukha = happiness (I.33; II.5,7,42,46)

sûkæma = subtle (I.44,45; II.10,50; III.26,45; IV.13)

åûnyaï = empty (I.9,43; III.3; IV.34)

sûrye = sun (III.27)

sûtra = thread; condensed mnemonic verse sva = own (II.9,23,40,50; III.36; IV.19,22)

svâdhyâya = self-study (II.1,32,44)

svâmi = owner (II.23)

svapna = dream (I.38)

svarûpe = own form, identity (I.3,43; II.23,54; III.3,45,48; IV.34)

åvâsa = inhalation (I.31; II.49)

syât = could be (IV.16)

tad = its, that (I.12,16,28,32,41,50; II.11,21,22,25,35; III.3,5,18,20,21,23,29,46,51,53; IV.8,11,16,17,19,22,24,27tadâ = then (I.3; IV.16,26,31)

tâï = these (I.46)

tânatâ = extension, stretching (III.2)

tanmâtra = subtle primary experience of sound, form, odor, flavor, or feeling tantram = dependent (IV.16)

tanû = slender, weak (II.2,4)

tâpa = anguish (II.15)

tapaï = heat, intensity of discipline, austerity, austerity (II.1,32,43; IV.1)

târâ = star (III.28)

târakaä = transcendent, delivering (III.55)

tâsâm = of these (IV.10)

tasmin = in this (II.49)

tasya = of this, that (I.27,51; II.24,27; III.6,10,20)

tat = that, these (I.16,32,41; II.35; III.17,20,24, 54; IV.16,18,19,24)

tataï = therefore, from these, from that (I.22,29; II.48,52,55; III.12,38,45,47,50,55; IV.3,8,30,32)

tathâ = thus (II.19)

tatra = there, in that (I.13,25,42,48; III.2; IV.6)

tattva = thusness, elemental quality, principle (I.32; IV.14)

tayoï = of both (IV.15)

te = they, these (I.30; II10,14; III.38; IV.13)

tîvra = extremely (I.21)

trayam = these three (III.4,7,16)

trividham = threefold (IV.7)

tu = and, moreover, but (I.14; IV.3)

tûla = cotton (III.42)

tulya = similar, equal (III.12,54)

tyâgaï = abandonment (II.35)

ubhaya = both (IV.20)

udâna = uppermost region of energy flow, or prana (III.40)

udârâñâm = activated, aroused (II.4)

udayau = arising, appearance (III.11)

uditau = arisen (III.12,14)

uktaä = described, explained (III.22; IV.28)

upalabdhi = acquisition (II.23)

upanimantrañe = invitation (III.52)

uparâga = coloring (IV.17)

uparaktaä = colored (IV.23)

upasargâ = obstacle, impediment (III.38)

upasthânam = approach, materialize (II.37)

upâyaï = means (II.26)

upeksanam = equanimity (I.33)

utkrântiï = rising up (III.40)

uttareæâm = other, following (II.4)

utpannâ = arisen, produced (I.35)

vâ = or (I.23,34,35,36,37,38,39; III.23,34; IV.34)

vâcakaï = signifying, connoting (I.27)

vâhî = flowing (II.9)

vâhitâ = flow, progression (III.10)

vaira = hostility (II.35)

vairâgyaï = dispassion, non-reaction, non-attachment (I.12,15; III.51)

vaiåâradye = lucidity, purity (I.47)

vaitëæñyam = without wanting or attachment (I.16)

vajra = diamond (III.47)

varaña = choosing (IV.3)

vârttâï = smelling (III.37)

vâsanânâm = latent properties, traits (IV.8,24)

vaåîkâra = mastery, willing something to happen (I.15,40)

vastu = object, substance (I.9; IV.14,15,16,17)

vaåyata = obedience, subservience (II.55)

vat = like (IV.3,28)

vatî = having (I.35)

vattva = function (III.45,48)

vedanâ = feeling (III.37)

vedanîyaï = to be experienced (II.12)

vibhaktaï = separation (IV.15)

vibhûti = extraordinary powers (III)

vicâra = insight, reflection (I.17)

vicchedaï = cessation, interruption (II.49)

vicchinna = interrupted, intercepted (II.4)

videha = bodiless (I.19; III.44)

vidhârañâbhyâm = pause, retention (I.34)

viduæaï = sage, wise person (II.9)

vikalpa = conceptualization (I.6,9,42)

vikaraña = without organs (III.49)

vikæepâï = distraction, stirring up (I.30,31)

vinivëttiï = cessation (IV.25)

viniyogaï = progression, application (III.6)

vipâka = ripening, fruition (I.24; II.13; IV.8)

viparyaya = misperception, error (I.6,8)

viprakëæøa = distant (III.26)

virâma = cessation (I.18)

virodhât = conflict, opposition (II.15)

vîrya = energy, vigor (I.20; II.38)

viæaya = object (of experience)

(I.11,15,33,37,44,49; II.54; III.55)

viæayatvaä = the thing itself, thus-ness of an object (I.45)

viåeæaï = distinction; distinct, particular (I.22,24,49; II.19; IV.25)

viæokâ = free of sorrow (I.36)

vîta = free from, without (I.37)

vitarka = analytical thinking; unwholesome thoughts (I.17; II.33,34)

vitëæñasya = without wanting or attachment (I.15)

viveka = discrimination (II.26,28; III.53,55; IV.26,29)

vivekinaï = a person of discrimination (II.15)

vratam = vow, commitment (II.31)

vëtti = patternings, turnings, movements (I.2,4,5,10,41; II.11,15,50; III.44; IV.18)

vyâdhi = sickness (I.30)

vyâkhyâtâ = described, explained (I.44; III.13)

vyakta = manifest (IV.13)

vyavahita = hidden, separated (III.26; IV.9)

vyûha = arrangement (III.28,30)

vyutthâna = emergence (III.9,38)

yama = external discipline (I.13)

yathâ = as (I.39)

yatnaï = sustained effort (I.13)

yoga = yoking, union (I.1,2; II.1,28)

yoginaï = yogi (IV.7)

yogyatâ, yogyatvâni = capability (II.41)

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